Effects Of Exposure To Health Programs, Culture, Efficacy Expectations And Environment On Health Status Among Malaysians Of Multi-Cultural Backgrounds

Mary Jane Botabara-Yap, Miriam Razon-Estrada


This study determined the effects of exposure to health programs, culture, efficacy expectations and environment on health status, such as body mass index (BMI), blood pressure (BP), waist-to-hip-ratio (WHR) and resting heart rate (RHR), among Malaysians. The study utilized descriptive-correlational design. Four hundred fifty nine samples across three major geographical locations, three different cultural backgrounds such as Malays, Chinese and Indians from ages 18 and above were chosen as population using convenience sampling. Result showed that the respondents have low exposure to health programs, strong culture, strong efficacy expectations, moderate access to health care and strong social support. The respondents had overweight BMI, borderline and high WHR among males and females, respectively. Systolic blood pressure was borderline while diastolic blood pressure and resting heart rate were normal. In terms of the moderator variables, age, gender and race showed significant difference in the health status of the population; Moreover, the study further revealed that culture, specifically tradition, as well as environment, specifically access to health care delivery, are significantly related to health status.

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