KAJIAN INTERVENSI PENCEGAHAN PERILAKU SEKSUAL BERISIKO HIV DALAM PENINGKATAN SELF-EFFICACY PADA REMAJA

Angga Wilandika

Abstract


ABSTRAK

Pendahuluan: Perkembangan aktivitas seksual pada masa remaja menjadikan paparan  terhadap infeksi HIV semakin tinggi dan apabila tidak memiliki kemampuan diri untuk mencegahnya  maka akan menyebabkan resiko terjangkitnya infeksi HIV. Tujuan: penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengidentifikasi intervensi efikasi diri dalam pencegahan perilaku seksual berisiko HIV pada remaja.  Metode yang digunakan adalah kajian literatur. Penelusuran database dilakukan melalui ProQuest Nusing and Allied Health Source (Januari 2007 sampai Februari 2017), menggunakan  kata kunci pencarian “self-efficacy”, “HIV/AIDS”, “intervention, “program” dan adolescents. Selain itu, artikel yang dipilih dibatasi hanya pada penelitian yang menggunakan metode randomized-controlled trial (RCT). Hasil: Kajian menemukan tiga penelitian yang menggambarkan intervensi atau program yang meningkatkan efikasi diri dalam pencegahan perilaku seksual berisiko HIV. Intervensi ditemukan menggunakan teknik edukasi kesehatan atau promosi kesehatan dalam mencegah perilaku seksual berisiko HIV pada remaja. Intervensi yang ditujukan pada remaja ini berdampak terhadap keyakinan efikasi diri remaja.  Pendidikan kesehatan yang dilakukan berfokus pada tingkatan individu, keluarga, komunitas, dan masyarakat serta penggunaan teknologi sebagai media pemberian edukasi kesehatan tersebut. Penulis menyimpulkan bahwa intervensi untuk meningkatkan efikasi diri pencegahan harus dilakukan secara proaktif dan berkelanjutan baik menggunakan pendekatan yang berfokus kepada individu remaja sendiri ataupun melibatkan peran serta keluarga dan masyarakat dan menggunakan teknologi komputer. Diskusi: Disarankan untuk penelitian selanjutnya mengenai intervensi berbasis teknologi yang lebih luas dan lebih dikenal oleh kalangan remaja untuk mengembangkan efikasi diri dalam pencegahan perilaku berisiko HIV.

 

Kata kunci: pencegahan, perilaku seksual berisiko HIV, remaja dan self-efficacy

 

ABSTRACT

Introduction: The sexual activity development  in an early adolescence makes this age group to have higher exposure to the HIV infection. If this population has no ability to resist then it will lead to the the risk of HIV cases.  Methods: This study is a literature review. ProQuest Nusing and Allied Health Source (January 2007 – February 2017) were searched using keyword term “self-efficacy”, “HIV/AIDS”, “intervention”, “program” and “adolescents” In addition, the chosen article was restricted to studies using randomized-controlled trial (RCT). Paper that described an intervenstions that promote a self-efficacy in the HIV sexual risk behavior in adolescent were selected for review. Results: Three papers met the selection criteria. The interventions were found using health education or health promotion approach in preventing HIV sexual risk behavior in adolescents. Interventions have an impact to increase self-efficacy beliefs in adolescent. Health education was focused on the individual, family, and community level, as well as the technology also used for the provision of health education. nInvestigator conclude that nurses should carried out the holistic nature of the dying experience and interventions needed to promote a peaceful death and dignity dying for patients and their family. Furthermore, interventions to improve self-efficacy of prevention should carried out proactively and sustainably. Interventions can focus on individual adolescents themselves or involve the participation of families and communities and use computer technology. Discussion: Further research is to generate a technology-based interventions that is broader and more known by the youth to develop self-efficacy in the prevention of HIV risk behavior.

Keywords: adolescents, HIV sexual risk behavior, prevention, and  self-efficacy


Keywords


pencegahan, perilaku seksual berisiko HIV, remaja dan self-efficacy

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