Social and Spiritual Determinants of Mental Health among Persons Deprived of Liberty: A Basis for Program Development
Keywords:psychosocial health, self-esteem, aggressiveness, outlook, inmates
Issues on mental health among Persons Deprived of Liberty [PDL] are seen but mostly are not recognized in the Philippines. This study aimed to determine the social and spiritual determinants of mental health among PDLs. Self-esteem, aggressiveness, and outlook are considered the dimensions of mental health in this study. This research was also conducted to establish the predictors of mental health among the respondents. A descriptive correlational research design was utilized. Through convenience sampling, 143 PDLs from a jail institution in Region IV-A were selected. A self-constructed questionnaire which had undergone validation and reliability testing was used. Data gathered were analyzed using descriptive statistics, Pearson’s correlation, Analysis of Variance (ANOVA), and linear regression. The study revealed that the respondents have high levels of social and spiritual determinants, high levels of self-esteem, positive outlook, and low levels of aggression. Aggressiveness and outlook are significantly related to social and spiritual determinants, while self-esteem is not significantly related to both determinants. Furthermore, gender is significantly related to self-esteem and the outlook of the respondents; age has a significant relationship with aggressiveness; and the length of imprisonment has no significant relationship with all dimensions of mental health. Predictors for each mental health dimension were also determined. The gender of the respondents was the only predictor for self-esteem; social determinant and the age of the respondents were the predictors for aggressiveness. Also, the spirituality of the respondents was the only predictor for their outlook. A proposed program was made based on the results of the study. This program, if implemented, aims to enhance the promotion of mental health among Persons Deprived of Liberty.
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