Disparities in Childhood Obesity in Low Socioeconomic Status and Racial/Ethnic Populations: An analytical literature review
AbstractSince childhood obesity is linked with an increased risk of obesity in adulthood, obesity inchildren and adolescence brings a multitude of adverse health outcomes including, but notlimited to cardiovascular disease, sleep apnea, diabetes, some forms of cancer, hypertension,and death. This study focuses on analytical evaluation of disparities of childhood obesity inlow socioeconomic status and racial/ethnic populations. The analytical review was conductedon the literature available online focusing five dimensions for the analysis is expressed in thefollowing points: (1) What is evel of incidence of childhood obesity in the United States, (2)What is definition of childhood obesity? (3) What are the factors that impact obesity? (4) Whatis the appropriate theoretical framework for research on childhood obesity? (5) What are theknowledge gaps and the recommended future research? The prevalence of obesity in childrenand adolescents is very alarming and needs to be addressed because this health status, beingoverweight/obese, has a significant and unfavorable impact on not only the health of youngAmericans today but also the future health of young Americans. Using the percentile categoriesto determine childhood obesity, there are noteworthy differences when comparing obesity ratesby race/ethnicity, gender, and socioeconomic status. There was no significant correlationbetween race/ethnicity and overweight/obese when controlling the income. When addressingdisparities in childhood obesity it is important to understand not only the causes of obesity, butalso other factors which may amplify the causes of obesity. Socioeconomic status duringchildhood, being male, white, has a high possibility of adiposity in adolescence. Exposure tomedia and marketing, the reduced access and availability of quality and affordable foodproducts is an example of a factor that may amplify the cause of obesity.
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