The Temple Motif in the Book of Haggai: A Call for Theocentric Perspective and Priorities in the Post Modern and Technological World

  • Andresito P Fernando Adventist University of the Philippines
Keywords: Eschatological Hope, God’s Sovereignty, Theocentric Perspective, Generation Z, Generation X, Millennials, Temple Motif

Abstract

The temple motif in the Book of Haggai offers timeless truths that remain relevant to everygeneration of its readers. The Jews, coming from their exile, initially did fairly well inrebuilding their city and their temple in Jerusalem. However, things turned from good to badwhen the experience of perennial hardships, economic considerations, and self-centerednessaffected the lives of the Jewish returnees. Not only did the Jews lost their interest inrebuilding the temple, but their theocentric perspective had been lost and was replaced bymisdirected priorities. It was in this setting that Haggai delivered his message. Utilizingexegetical method and synthetic analysis of the Book of Haggai, this study presents thetheological concept of the temple theme in Haggai and relates it to the contemporary time.The purpose of this study is to find parallel concepts that make the message of the Book ofHaggai relevant to the present time. The contemporary period that is characterized by moral,political, and economic chaos seems to diminish Christian’s sense of the sovereignty andpresence of God who is able to provide during difficult times. On the other side is thecontinuous resurgence of post modernism, secularism, human-centered ideology, and rapidadvance in technology that leads the present generation to a paradigm shift from Godcentered way of life to self-centeredness. Generations belonging to the “Millennials,”“Generation X,” and “Generation Z,” that dominate the present era appear to share somebasic commonalities - they are digital natives, immersed in technology , internet enthusiasts,and rigorously preoccupied by personal achievements. These mindset appear to placereligion at the backseat.This study found out that the temple motif in the Book of Haggai assures every Christiansthat God does not leave His people during difficult time. However there is a call for decisiveaction to make God the center of their life and their priorities. Positive response to themessage of Haggai has a far reaching repercussion - God’s blessings in the present life andthe eschatological hope in the coming Kingdom of God.
Article Metrics

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

References

Ackroyd, P. (1972). Exile and Restoration: A Study of the Hebrew Thought of the Sixth Century B.C. (Philadelphia: The Westminster Press,

Andrews, S. J. (2011). ed. Journal for the Evangelical Study of the Old Testament. Oregon: Wipf and Stock Publushers.

Assis, E. (2007). Composition, Rhetoric, and Theology in Haggai 1:1-11. The Journal of Hebrew Scriptures, Vol. 7, Art. 11. Canada: University of Alberta.

Assis, E. (2008). The Temple in the Book of Haggai. The Journal of Hebrew Scriptures, Vol. 8, Art. 19. Canada: University of Alberta, 2008.

Baker, E. W. (2015). The Eschatological Role of the Jerusalem Temple. An Examination of the Jewish Writings Dating From 586 BCE to 70 CE. Humburg, Germany: Anchor Academic Publishing, 2015.

Beentjes, P. C. (2011). “The Book of Ben Sira and Deuteonomistic Heritage: A Critical

Approach,” in Changes in Scripture: Rewriting and Interpreting Authoritative Traditions in the Second Temple Period, ed. Hanne von Weissenberg, Juha Pakkala, and Marko Marttila. Berlin: Gruyter.

Boda, M. J. (2003). Majoring On the Minors: Recent Research On Haggai and Zechariah. Currents on Biblical Research, Vol. 2, No. 1. USA: SAGE Publication.

Carter, C. E. (1999). The Emergence of Yehud in the Persian Period: A Social and

Demographic Study. Journal for the Study of the Old Testament Supplement Serries, No. 294. ed. David J. E. Clines and Philip R. Davies. England: Sheffield Academic Press.

Cartledge, T. W. (2003). A House for God and a House for David. Word and Word. Theology for Christian Ministry, ed. Mark Granquist. MN: Luther Seminary.

Clements, R. E. (n.a.). God and Temple: The Idea of the Divine Presence in Ancient Israel. Oregon: Wipf and Stock Publishers.

Clines, D. J. A. (1993). Haggai's Temple, Constructed, Deconstructed and Reconstructed.

Scandinavian Journal of the Old Testament, ed. H. J. L. Jensen. Vol. 7, No. 1. Scandinavia: Taylor and Francis.

Cohen, S. J. D. (2006). From the Maccabees to the Mishnah (2nd ed). Louisville, KY: Westminster John Knox Press.

Davidson, R. (2015). Earth’s First Sanctuary: Genesis 1–3 and Parallel Creation Account. Andrews University Seminary Studies, ed. Martin F. Hanna,Vol. 53, No. 1 Michigan: Andrews University Press.

DeSilva, D. A. (2000). Sirach. Dictionary of New Testament Background. ed. Craig A. Evans and Stanley E. Porter. Downers Grove, IL: InterVarsity Press.

Dumm, D. (2003). Tobit (Tobias), Book of. New Catholic Encyclopedia (2nd ed). Detroit, MI: Gale.

Eslinger, L. (1994). House of God or House of David: The Rhetoric of 2 Samuel 7. Journal for the Study of the Old Testament. England: Sheffield Academic Press.

Green, J. R. (2012). The Spirit in the Temple: Bridging the Gap Between Old Testament Absence and New Testament. Journal of Evangelical Theological Society, Vol. 55, No. 4. USA: Evangelical Theological Society.

Hamblin, W., and D. Peterson. (2018). The Religion of the Biblical Patriarchs. Accessed at https://www.deseretnews.com/article/865675903/The-religion-of-the-biblicalpatriarchs-2-and-it-doesnt-appear-to-be-Judaism.html. Accessed December 20, 2018.

Hellerman, J. (n.a.). Purity and Nationalism in Second Temple Literature: 1-2 Maccabees and Jubilees. Journal of the Evangelical Theological Society, Vol. 46, no. 3. USA: Evangelical Theological Society.

House, P. R.. (1998). Old Testament Theology. Downers Grove, Ill: InterVarsity.

Huntington, R. L. (2005). Consider Your Ways: The Book of Haggai and the Responsibilities and Blessings of Temple Work, in Sperry Symposium Classics: The Old Testament, ed. Paul Y. Hoskisson. Provo and Salt Lake City: Religious Studies Center, Brigham Young University, and Deseret Book.

Kessler, J. A. (2002). Building the Second Temple: Questions of Time, Text, and History in Haggai 1.1-15, Journal for the Study of the Old Testament, 27.2 (2002)

Kessler, J. A. (1987). The Shaking of Nations: An Eschatological View. Journal of Evangelical Theological Society, 30.2.

Kessler, J. (2006). Haggai, Zerubbabel and the Political Status of Yehud: The Signet Ring in Haggai 2:23:" Prophets, Prophecy, and Prophetic Texts in Second Temple Judaism. ed. Michael Floyd and Robert D. Haak (T & T Clark, 2006).

Koester, C. R. (1989). The Dwelling of God: The Tabernacle in the Old Testament, Intertestamental Jewish Literature, and the New Testament. Washington, DC: Catholic Biblical Association of America.

Lecureux, J. (2017). Restored Hope? The Function of the Temple, Priest, and Cult as Restoration in the Book of the Twelve. Journal for the Study of the Old Testament.

ed. David Shepherd. USA: SAGE Publication.

Lioy, D. T. (2010). The Garden of Eden as a Primordial Temple or Sacred Space for Human

Kind: Axis of Glory: A Biblical and Theological Analysis of the Temple Motif in Scripture (Peter Lang: 2010)

Marx, D. (2013). The Missing Temple: The Status of the Temple in Jewish Culture Follwing Its Destruction. Europen Judaism: A Journal for the New Europe, ed. Jonathan Magonet. Vol. 46, No. 2. Brooklyn, NY: Berghahn Books.

McDonald, N. and I. J. De Hulster, eds. (2013). Divine Presence and Absence in Exilic and Post Exilic Judaism. Studies of the Sofja Kovalevskaja Research Group on Early Jewish Monotheism, Vol. 2. Tubingen: Mohr Siebeck.

McKenzie, S. L. ed. (2011). Interpreting Exile: Displacement and Deportation in Biblical and Modern Contexts. Atlanta, GA: Society of Biblical Literature.

Mermelstein, A. (2014). Creation, Covenant, and the Beginning of Judaism: Reconceiving Historical Time in the Second Temple Period (Leiden: Brill, 2014)

Meyers, E. M. (1983). “The Use of Torah in Haggai 2:11 and the Role of the Prophet in the

Restoration Community,” eds. Carol L. Meyers and M. O’Connor, Word of the Lord Shall Go Forth: Essays in Honor of David Noel Freedman in Celebration of His Sixtieth Birthday. Winona Lake, IN: Eisenbrauns, 1983.

Miller, John H. (1979). Haggai - Zechariah: Prophets of the Now and Future. Currents in Mission and Theology, 6. Chicago: Lutheran School of Theology.

Motyer, J. A. (1998). Haggai. The Minor Prophets: An Exegetical and Expository Commentary. ed. by Thomas Edward McComiskey. Grand Rapids: Baker.

Petterson, A. R. (2010). The Shape of the Davidic Hope across the Book of the Twelve. Journal for the Study of the Old Testament. USA: SAGE Publication.

Pierce, R. W. (1994). Covenant Conditionality and the Future of Israel. Journal of Evangelical Theological Society, Vol. 37, No. 1. USA: Evangelical Theologucal Society.

Piotrowski, N. G. (2017). The Concept of Exile in Late Second Temple Judaism: A Review of Recent Scholarship. Currents in Biblical Research, Vol. 15, No. 2. USA: SAGE

Publication.

Porter, S. E. and J. C. R. de Roo, ed. (2003). The Concept of the Covenant in the Second Temple Period. Journal for the Study of Judaism (Netherland: Brill, 2003)

Schachter, L. (2013). The Garden of Eden as God’s First Snactuary. Jewish Bible Quarterly, ed. Zvi Ron. Vol. 41, No. 2. Jewish Bible Association.

Schreiner, D. B. (2015). Zerubbabel, Persia, and Inner-Biblical Exegesis. Journal for the Evangelical Study of the Old Testament, ed. Stephen J. Andrews. Vol. 4, No. 2

(Oregon: Wipf and Stock Publishers, 2015)

Swinburnson, B. W. (2008). The Rhetoric of the Post-Exilic Prophetic Reversal: Chiasmus in

Haggai 1:1-15: A Structural and Biblical-Theological Analysis. Kerux:Northwest

Theological Seminary, Vol 23, No. 3. Washington: Northwest Theological Seminary.

Talmon, S. (2001). Exile and Restoration’ in the Conceptual World of Ancient Judaism,” in Restoration: Old Testament Jewish and Christian Perspectives. ed. James M. Scott. Leiden: Brill.

Tarazi, P. N. (1979). Covenant, land and city: finding God's will in Palestine. The Reformed Journal, Vol. 29. St. Vladimir’s Orthodox Theological Seminary.

Werse, N. R. (2018). Exile, Restoration, and the Question of Postexilic Suffering in Josephus: Journal for the Study of Judaism, ed. E.J.C. Tigchelaar. Vol. 49, No. 3. Netherland: Brill Publication.

Wolf, H. (1976). The Desire of All Nations in Haggai 2:7: Messianic or Not? Journal of Evangelical Theological Society, Vol. 19, No. 2 (Evangelical Theological Society, 1976).

Published
2019-12-18
How to Cite
Fernando, A. (2019). The Temple Motif in the Book of Haggai: A Call for Theocentric Perspective and Priorities in the Post Modern and Technological World. Abstract Proceedings International Scholars Conference, 7(1), 2020-2032. https://doi.org/10.35974/isc.v7i1.935