Social Media Exposure: Its Relationship to Contingencies of Self-Worth and Happiness of Generations X and Y Nurses

  • Angel Grace Fio Bingcang Adventist University of the Philippines
  • Krishanne Mae F. Fallar
  • Patricia Joy A. Cequiña
  • Hilfred Dan U. Dela Torre
Keywords: social media, self-worth, happiness


Social media or social networking sites have been widely used to get connected with familyand friends and stay up-to date with the recent news, research, and many more. The effect,however, created an impact whether it brings positive or negative result to the end users. Thisstudy was conducted to determine the relationship of social media exposure to thecontingencies of self-worth and happiness of Generations X and Y nurses. Nurses, despite thework demands, have to carry on with the responsibility of identification, analysis,interpretation and dissemination of nursing knowledge within the health care system. Theresearchers used a descriptive correlational design. A modified version of Crocker’sContingencies of Self-worth Scale, Oxford Scale of Happiness and a self-constructed socialmedia exposure questionnaire were used to measure the variables being studied. Data from125 respondents comprising of both generation X and Y respondents were analyzed andinterpreted using mean, standard deviation, Kruskal Wallis test, and Pearson correlation.Results showed that Facebook was commonly used by the respondents followed byInstagram, Twitter, and Snapchat, respectively. Facebook was used for an average of at leastone to three hours. Contingencies of self-worth and happiness were both high. Furthermore,the results showed that there is no significant relationship between social media exposure ofGeneration X and Y nurses and contingencies of self-worth and happiness. Those belongingto the Generation X are happier than Generation Y regardless of their age and gender. Thosewith low income have been found out to have low levels of happiness. The researchersrecommend that one must be matured enough before they can be allowed to engage in socialmedia exposure so that negative influences will be avoided.
Article Metrics


Download data is not yet available.


Aguirre, C. (2017). Are girls better at liking themselves? Retrieved from Headspace Inc.:

Ashwini Nadkami & Stefan G. Hoffman. (2012, November 26). Why Do People Use Facebook. Retrieved from Personality and Individual Differences: pmc/articles/PMC3335399/

Ashwini Nadkarmi; Stefan G. Hoffman. (2012, February 1). Why Do People Use Facebook? Retrieved from Personality and Individual Differences: pmc/articles/PMC3335399/

Bergland, C. (2014, December 13). Why Does Having a Positive Attitude Keep You Healthier? Retrieved from Psychology Today:

Bhasin, H. (2018, November 6). What are the uses of social Media? Retrieved from Marketing 91:

Bolluyt, J. (2015, March 15). How Facebook and Twitter Have Evolved Over the Years. Retrieved from Chowbiz CheatSheet:

C. H. Davis, R. Deil-Amen, C. Rios Aguilar & M. Canche. (2012). Social Media in Higher Education: A Literature. Community College Journal of Research and Practice, 39(5), 409-422. doi: 10.1080/10668926.2013.828665

Carroll, L. (2009, December 17). Looks Buy Happiness, But Only in the City. Retrieved from NBC Bay Area: but_only_in_the_city-79408237.html

Chaffey, D. (2019, February 12). Smart Insights (Marketing Intelligence) Limited. Retrieved from Smart Insights:

Cheng-Hong Liu & Po-Sheng Huang. (2018). Contingencies of Self-Worth on Positive and Negative Events and Their Relationships to Depression. Frontier in Psychology.

Conkle, A. (2008, August). Serious Research on Happiness. Retrieved from Association for Psychological Science:

Connie Wolfe & Jennifer Crocker. (2003). What does the self want? Contingencies of selfworth and goals.

Cowan, K. (2019, September 19). Where True Happiness Comes From: How We Gain by Having Less. Retrieved from Tiny Buddha, SImple Wisdom for Complex Life :

Crocker, J. (2010, September 22). Taylor & Francis Group. Retrieved from Taylor & Francis Online:

D. M. Boyd & N. B. Ellison. (2007). Social network sites: Definition, history and scholarship. Journal of Computer - MEdiated Communication.

Davidson, L. (2015, May 17). Is your daily social media usage higher than average? Retrieved from The Telegraph: logyandtelecoms/11610959/Is-your-daily-social-media-usage-higher-than-average. html

Diana, T. Sanchez, & Jennifer Crocker. (2005, March 1). Psychology of Women Quarterly. Retrieved from Sage Journals:

Ducharme, J. (2018, August 22). Mental Health/Psychology. Retrieved from

Duggan, M. (2015, August 19). Internet and Technology. Retrieved from Pew Research Center:

Easterlin, R. (2001). Income and Happiness: Towards a Unified Theory. The Economic Journal, 481.

Elisa Bergagna, Stefano Tartaglia. (2018, November 30). Self-Esteem, Social Comparison, and Facebook Use. Retrieved from Europe's Journal of Psychology: https://www.ncbi.nlm.

French, M. (2012, May). The Effects of Self-Presentation Goals While Using Social Networking Sites On Contingencies of Self-Worth. Retrieved from Knowledge bank:

Hamilton, A. (2010, April 1). Self-esteem Declines Sharply Among Older Adults While Middle-Aged Are Most Confident. Retrieved from American Psychological Association:

Hoffman, C. (2010, September 15). The Battle for Facebook. Retrieved from Rolling Stone:

Kennelly, S. (2012, June 6). Greater Good Magazine. Retrieved from The Greater Good Science Center at the University of California, Berkeley:

Leary, M. (2017, December 1). The Psychology of Happiness—Does Money Make People Happy? Retrieved from The Great Course Daily:

Lescheid, H. (2010, June 8). What Do I Base my Self-worth On? Retrieved from The Power To Change:

Mehdizadeh, S. (2010, August 13). Self- presentation 2.0: narcissism and self-esteem on Facebook. Retrieved from Cyberpsychology behavior & social networking:

Morin, A. (2015, January 18). How Do You Measure Your Self-Worth? Retrieved from Forbes:

Mukhaini, Elham & Al-Qayoudhi, Wafa & Al-Badi, Ali. (2014). The Adoption of Social Networking in Education: A Study of the Use of Social Networks by Higher Education Students in Oman. Journal of International Education Research.

Muqaddas Jan, Sanobia Anwwer Soomro, Nawaz Ahmad. (2017, August). Self-Esteem, Social Comparison, and Facebook Use. Retrieved from Europian Scientific Journal: URL:

Nations, D. (2019, January 1). Retrieved from website:

Oishi, S. (2019). Optimal Levels of Happiness. Retrieved from Noba textbook series: Psychology. Champaign:

Kim, P. (2019, July 23). Credit Donkey. Retrieved from

Peterson, L. (2019, March 1). The Negative Effect of Social Media on Society and Individuals. Retrieved from

Ritvo, E. (2012, May 24). Psychology Today. Retrieved from Psychology Today:

The House of I.T. (2018, December 22). Retrieved from The House of I.T.:

The Psychology Notes HQ. (2018, March 10). Retrieved from psychologynoteshq:

Turttle, B. (2011, March 30). Why Are Beautiful People Happier? Mainly Because Good Looks Help Them Get Rich. Retrieved from Time USA, LLC: /03/30/why-are-beautiful-people-happier-mainly-because-good-lucks-help-them-getrich/

Warren, R. (2014, June 1). Focus on Your Purpose, Not Your Problem. Retrieved from Daily Hope:

ZHukova, A. (2018, October 31). MakeUseOfAll. Retrieved from MakeUseOfAll:

How to Cite
Bingcang, A. G., Fallar, K. M., Cequiña, P. J., & Dela Torre, H. D. (2019). Social Media Exposure: Its Relationship to Contingencies of Self-Worth and Happiness of Generations X and Y Nurses. Abstract Proceedings International Scholars Conference, 7(1), 327-346.