Oral Health Practice, Incidence of Dental Caries, and Plaque Index of Visually Impaired Students: A Basis for the Development of Oral Hygiene Braille Manual

a Basis for the Development of Oral hygiene Braille Manual

  • Nathalya Bmay Subido Adventist University of the Philippines
  • Denise Ann Chua Adventist University of The Philippines
  • Lester Angelo Ofren Adventist University of The Philippines
  • Gladys Mae Sapungan Adventist University of The Philippines
  • Agnes Agadel Dizon Adventist University of The Philippines
  • Roderick Perez Adventist University of The Philippines
  • Lorcelie Taclan Adventist University of The Philippines
  • Marian Fonacier Adventist University of The Philippines
Keywords: oral health practice, visually impaired, totally blind, low vision, oral hygiene braille manual, the incidence of caries, plaque index


Oral health is an integral part of a person’s holistic health but it still an alarming health concernin the Philippines. This research focused on visually impaired students. Blind patients have ahigher prevalence of dental caries because they cannot envision the plaque and caries in theiroral cavity and would often struggle to obtain dental care due to their increased anxiety.This is a cross-sectional observational study that aimed to produce an oral hygiene braillemanual based on the extent of oral health practice, incidence of dental caries, and plaque indexof the visually impaired students in a local school that caters for visually impaired. Thequestionnaire form has 3 parts: (1) consent form (2) demographic questions: sight impairment,primary care giver’s income, age, gender (3) and questions concerning their oral hygienepractice. Results were correlated with the student’s caries and plaque using the following index: Decayed Missing Filled Teeth(DMFT)/Simplified Oral Hygiene Index (OHI-S) .Seventeen (17) students participated in the study, ranging from grade levels 1-10 and agesfrom 8-21 years old. Eight (8) out of seventeen (17) participants have low-vision while the restare totally blind. The participants’ monthly family income ranges from below 10,000-20,000php. All correlations were statistically non-significant. But since Oral health practices,plaque index, and caries incidence were fair there is a need for prevention to aim for good oralhealth practice hence, the creation of a manual focused on preventive dentistryThis pilot research had limitations that might have lead to the non-significant results of thestudy such as: limited sample size, Hawthorne effect and limitation of index used. Therefore,the author recommends future researchers to improve the survey questionnaires and use a moreaccurate index to a larger sample size.
Article Metrics


Download data is not yet available.


Al-sinaidi AA. (2013) Oral hygiene practices and periodontal health status of Visually impaired Saudi adults in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. PAKISTAN ORAL & DENTAL JOURNAL Vol 33, No. 1

Azodo C. C., Unamatokpa B. (2012). Gender differences in oral health perception and practices among medical house officers. Russian open medical journal. http://romj.org/20120208

Bennadi D.., Mythri H, and Bharteesh J V (2013) Negligence among Visually Impaired Children- A Call for Attention. Research & Reviews: Journal of Dental Sciences Retrieved fromL http://www.rroij.com/open-access/dental-negligence-amongvisually-impaired-children--a-call-for-attention.php?aid=34472

Bhor K., Shetty V., Garcha V., and Nimbulkar GC. (2016) Effect of oral health education in the form of Braille and oral health talk on oral hygiene knowledge, practices, and status of 12-17 years old visually impaired school girls in Pune city: A comparative study. National Center for Biotechnology Information DOI: 10.4103/22310762.192938 Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=Bhor%20K%5BAuthor%5D&cauthor =true&cauthor_uid=27891313

Crossman, Ashley (2018) Understanding Purposive Sampling: An Overview of the Method and Its Application. Retrieved from https://www.thoughtco.com/purposivesampling-3026727 on April 18, 2018.

Debnath A., B.K. Srivastava, and Shruthi E. (2017) New Vision for Improving the Oral Health Education of the Visually Impaired Children- A non Randomized Control Trial. Jul; 11(7): ZC29-ZC32.

Geethapriya PR, Asokan S and Kandaswamy D. (2017) Comparison of Oral Health Status and Knowledge on Oral Health in Two Age Groups of Schoolchildren: A Cross-sectional Study. International Journal of Clinical Pediatric Dentistry. Oct-Dec;10(4):340-345. doi: 10.5005/jp-journals-10005-1462

Hamasha, A., Alshunaiber, R., (2018). Gender-specific oral health beliefs and behaviors among adult patients attending King Abdulaziz Medical City in Riyadh, the Saudi Dental Journal, Volume 30, Issue 3, pages 226-231 https://doi.org/10.1063/1.4968866

John JR, Daniel B, Paneerselvam D, and Rajendran G. (2017) Prevalence of Dental Caries, Oral Hygiene Knowledge, Status, and Practices among Visually Impaired Individuals in Chennai, Tamil Nadu. Hindawi International Journal of Dentistry Volume 2017

Khokhar, V., Kawatra, S., & Pathak, S. (2016). Dental Management of Children with Special Health Care Needs (SHCN) – A Review. Journal of Advances in Medicine and Medical Research, 17(7), 1-16. https://doi.org/10.9734/BJMMR/2016/28426

Mahantesha T, Nara A, Kumari PR, Buddiga V, and Mythri S. (2015) A comparative evaluation of oral hygiene using Braille and audio instructions among institutionalized visually impaired children aged between 6 years and 20 years: A 3monthfollow-up study. Journal of International Society of Preventive and Community Dentistry 2015 Dec;5(Suppl 2):S129-32. doi: 10.4103/2231-0762.172953.

Mamai-Homata E, Koletsi-Kounari H and Margaritis V. (2016). Gender differences in oral health status and behavior of Greek dental students: A meta-analysis of 1981, 2000, and 2010 data. Journal of International Society of Preventive and Community Dentistry 2016 Jan-Feb;6(1):60-8. doi: 10.4103/2231-0762.175411

Mohan R, Raju R, Gubbihal R, Kousalya PS. (2016) Comprehensive Dental Care for the Visually Impaired: A Review. International Journal of Oral Health Medicine. Res 2016;3(4):97-101

Ozdemir, O. D., Sungurtekin, E., Cildir, S., and Sandalli, N. 2012 A Comparison of Oral Health Status of Children who are Visually Impaired and Children who are Sighted in Istanbul. Journal of Visual Impairment and Blindess.

Parkar SM, Patel N, Patel N, Zinzuwadia H. Dental Health Status of Visually Impaired Individuals attending Special School for Blind in Ahmedabad city, India. Indian J Oral Sci 2014;5:73-7

Priyadarshini P, Pushpanjali K, Sagarkar A, Bhoomika, and Shenoy S. 2015 Assessment of Oral Health Status among Visually Impaired Children. Journal of Dental & Orofacial Research Vol 11, Issue 1.

Queddeng, M.Q. (2012). Incidence Rate and Complications of Dental Caries Among the Intermediate Pupils. UNP Research Journal. Volume XXI. ISSN 0119-3058.

Sanjay V, Shetty SM, Shetty RG, Managoli NA, Gugawad SC, and Hitesh D. Dental Health Status Among Sensory Impaired and Blind Institutionalized Children aged 6 to 20 years. Journal of International Oral Health 2014; 6(1):55-58

Scully C., DizDios P., Kumar N., (2007). Special Care in Dentistry: Handbook of Oral HealthCare. London, United Kingdom: Churchill Livingstone

Shahabudin S, Hashim H, and Omar M. 2016 The effectiveness of dental health education tools for visually impaired students in Bukit Mertajam. AIP CONFERENCE PROCEEDINGS 1791, 020011 (2016);

Tagliareni, GF., and Sefo, DL., (2014, December 18). Teeth look like… . The National Magazine for Dental Hygiene Professionals, Retrieved from https://www.rdhmag.com/articles/print/volume-34/issue-12/features/teeth-looklike.html

Vozza, I., Barbato L., Corridore, D., Solomita, S., Occipite di Prisco, F., Guerra, F. and Ottolenghi, L. (2016) Oral Hygiene Management in Patients with Visual Sensory Disabilities Senses. Senses and Sciences 2016; 3 (3): 215-220 doi: 10.14616/sands2016-3- 215220

Zwiers MP., Van Opstal AJ., Cruysberg JR., (2001) A Spatial Hearing Deficit in Early-Blind Humans. J NEUROSCI 2001 May 1:21 (9):RC142: 1-5

How to Cite
Subido, N. B., Chua, D., Ofren, L., Sapungan, G., Dizon, A., Perez, R., Taclan, L., & Fonacier, M. (2019). Oral Health Practice, Incidence of Dental Caries, and Plaque Index of Visually Impaired Students: A Basis for the Development of Oral Hygiene Braille Manual. Abstract Proceedings International Scholars Conference, 7(1), 347-366. https://doi.org/10.35974/isc.v7i1.1028

Most read articles by the same author(s)