Effect of Foot Exercise on Lower Limb Strength and Balance Among Elderly: Basis for a Health Education Program
BASIS FOR A HEALTH EDUCATION PROGRAM
AbstractThe primary aim of this study was to determine the effects of foot exercise (senam kakidiabetes) on lower limb strength and balance among the elderly. A quasi-experimentalinterrupted time-series design with control group was utilized. Participants were chosenthrough purposive sampling technique. Consequently, 60 participants met the criteria set forthe study. Simple random sampling was used to divide the participants into experimental andcontrol groups with 30 participants in each group. The result shows that foot exercise waseffective in improving lower limb strength and balance of the elderly. Lower limb strengthand balance of the participants in the experimental group gradually improved in every week ofintervention compared to those in the control group. Further, the result shows that age, sex,and body weight did not affect the lower limb strength and balance of the elderly whounderwent foot exercise.
Addison, O., Marcus, R. L., LaStayo, P. C., & Ryan, A. S. (2014). Intermuscular fat: a review of the consequences and causes. International journal of endocrinology.
Alfieri, F. M., Riberto, M., Gatz, L. S., Ribeiro, C. P. C., Lopes, J. A. F., & Battistella, L. R. (2012). Comparison of multisensory and strength training for postural control in the elderly. Clinical interventions in aging, 7, 119. doi: 10.2147/CIA.S27747
Bird, M.-L., Pittaway, J. K., Cuisick, I., Rattray, M., & Ahuja, K. D. K. (2013). Age-Related Changes in Physical Fall Risk Factors: Results from a 3 Year Follow-up of Community Dwelling Older Adults in Tasmania, Australia. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 10(11), 5989–5997. http://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph10115989
Buford, T. W., Lott, D. J., Marzetti, E., Wohlgemuth, S. E., Vandenborne, K., Pahor, M., ... & Manini, T. M. (2012). Age-related differences in lower extremity tissue compartments and associations with physical function in older adults. Experimental gerontology, 47(1), 38-44.
Cadore, E. L., Moneo, A. B. B., Mensat, M. M., Muñoz, A. R., Casas-Herrero, A., RodriguezMañas, L., & Izquierdo, M. (2014). Positive effects of resistance training in frail elderly patients with dementia after long-term physical restraint. Age, 36(2), 801-811.
Cadore, E. L., Rodríguez-Mañas, L., Sinclair, A., & Izquierdo, M. (2013). Effects of Different Exercise Interventions on Risk of Falls, Gait Ability, and Balance in Physically Frail Older Adults: A Systematic Review. Rejuvenation Research, 16(2), 105–114. doi: http://doi.org/10.1089/rej.2012.1397
Carolyn, K., Lynn, A. C., & John, B. (2017). Therapeutic exercise:Foundations and techniques. 7th ed. Philadelphia: Davis Company.
Cho, S. I., & An, D. H. (2014). Effects of a fall prevention exercise program on muscle strength and balance of the old-old elderly. Journal of physical therapy science, 26(11), 17711774. doi: https://doi.org/10.1589/jpts.26.1771
Clark J. E. (2016). The impact of duration on effectiveness of exercise, the implication for periodsization of training and goal setting for individuals who are overfat, a metaanalysis. Biology of sport, 33(4), 309–333. doi:10.5604/20831862.1212974
Cruz-Jentoft, A. J., Landi, F., Schneider, S. M., Zúñiga, C., Arai, H., Boirie, Y., ... & Sieber, C. (2014). Prevalence of and interventions for sarcopenia in ageing adults: a systematic review. Report of the International Sarcopenia Initiative (EWGSOP and IWGS). Age and ageing, 43(6), 748-759. doi: 10.1093/ageing/afu115
Diz, J. B. M., Queiroz, B. Z. D., Tavares, L. B., & Pereira, L. S. M. (2015). Prevalence of sarcopenia among the elderly: findings from broad cross-sectional studies in a range of countries. Revista Brasileira de Geriatria e Gerontologia, 18(3), 665-678. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/1809-9823.2015.14139
Do Cetin, D. C., & Nasr, G. (2014). Obesity in the elderly: more complicated than you think. Cleveland clinic Journal of medicine, 81(1), 51. doi:10.3949/ccjm.81a.12165
Emilio, E. J. M. L., Hita-Contreras, F., Jiménez-Lara, P. M., Latorre-Román, P., & MartínezAmat, A. (2014). The association of flexibility, balance, and lumbar strength with balance ability: risk of falls in older adults. Journal of sports science & medicine, 13(2), 349.
Hands, B. P., Parker, H., Larkin, D., Cantell, M., & Rose, E. (2016). Male and female differences in health benefits derived from physical activity: implications for exerciseprescription. Journal of Women's Health, Issues and Care, 5(4). doi: 10.4172/23259795.1000238
Ilich, J. Z., Inglis, J. E., Kelly, O. J., & McGee, D. L. (2015). Osteosarcopenic obesity is associated with reduced handgrip strength, walking abilities, and balance in postmenopausal women. Osteoporosis International, 26(11).
Johns Hopkins Medicine (2018). Risk of physical inactivity. Johns Hopkins Medicin.
Josephson, M. D., & Williams, J. G. (2017). Functional-strengthening: A pilot study on balance control improvement in community-dwelling older adults. Montenegrin Journal of Sports Science and Medicine, 6(2), 75-78.
Joshua, A. M., D'Souza, V., Unnikrishnan, B., Mithra, P., Kamath, A., Acharya, V., & Venugopal, A. (2014). Effectiveness of progressive resistance strength training versus traditional balance exercise in improving balance among the elderly - a randomised controlled trial. Journal of clinical and diagnostic research : JCDR, 8(3), 98-102. doi: 10.7860/JCDR/2014/8217.4119
Kahle, N., & Tevald, M. A. (2014). Core muscle strengthening’s improvement of balance Performance in community-dwelling older adults: A pilot study. Journal of aging and physical activity, 22(1), 65-73.
Krist, L., Dimeo, F., & Keil, T. (2013). Can progressive resistance training twice a week improve mobility, muscle strength, and quality of life in very elderly nursing-home residents with impaired mobility? A pilot study. Clinical interventions in aging, 8, 443. doi: 10.2147/CIA.S42136
LeWin, H. (2014). Walking, other exercise helps seniors stay mobile, independent. Harvard Health Publishing.
Lori, T. B., Carrie M. H., & Carrie, H. (2017). Therapeutic exercise: Moving toward function. Mississipi: Wolters Kluwer.
Maritz, C, A., Patel, N., Varughese, L., & Yecco, A. (2013) The Effects of a 10- Week GroupBased Exercise Program on Lower Extremity Strength, Balance and Functional Mobility in Community-Dwelling Older Adults: A Pilot Study. International Journal of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. 1:150. doi: 10.4172/2329-9096.1000150
Masters, K. (2014). Nursing theories: A framework for professional practice. Jones & Mississipi: Bartlett Publishers.
Mauk, K. (2018). Gerontological nursing: Competencies for care 4th edition. Burlington: Jones &Bartlett Learning
Motalebi, S. A., Cheong, L. S., Iranagh, J. A., & Mohammadi, F. (2018). Effect of low-cost resistance training on lower-limb strength and balance in institutionalized seniors. Experimental aging research, 44(1), 48-61. doi: 10.1080/0361073X.2017. 1398810
Nakano, M. M., Otonari, T. S., Takara, K. S., Carmo, C. M., & Tanaka, C. (2014). Physical Performance, Balance, Mobility, and Muscle Strength Decline at Different Rates in Elderly People. Journal of Physical Therapy Science, 26(4), 583–586. doi: http://doi.org/10.1589/jpts.26.583
Penzer, F., Duchateau, J., & Baudry, S. (2015). Effects of short-term training combining strength and balance exercises on maximal strength and upright standing steadiness in elderly adults. Experimental gerontology, 61, 38-46.
Pengpid, S., & Peltzer, K. (2018). Prevalence and Risk Factors Associated with Injurious Falls among Community-Dwelling Older Adults in Indonesia. Current Gerontology and Geriatrics Research, 2018.
Reid, K. F., Pasha, E., Doros, G., Clark, D. J., Patten, C., Phillips, E. M., ... & Fielding, R. A. (2014). Longitudinal decline of lower extremity muscle power in healthy and mobility-limited older adults: influence of muscle mass, strength, composition, neuromuscular activation and single fiber contractile properties. European journal of applied physiology, 114(1), 29-39. doi: 10.1007/s00421-013-2728-2
Reid, K. F., Martin, K. I., Doros, G., Clark, D. J., Hau, C., Patten, C., ... & Fielding, R. A. (2014). Comparative effects of light or heavy resistance power training for improving lower extremity power and physical performance in mobility-limited older adults. Journals of Gerontology Series A: Biomedical Sciences and Medical Sciences, 70(3), 374-380.
Sakuma, K., & Yamaguchi, A. (2013). Sarcopenic obesity and endocrinal adaptation with age. International journal of endocrinology, 2013. Doi: 10.1155/2013/204164
Seco, J., Abecia, L. C., Echevarría, E., Barbero, I., Torres‐ Unda, J., Rodriguez, V., & Calvo, J. I. (2013). A long‐ term physical activity training program increases strength and flexibility, and improves balance in older adults. Rehabilitation Nursing, 38(1), 37-47.
Seene, T., & Kaasik, P. (2012). Muscle weakness in the elderly: role of sarcopenia, dynapenia, and possibilities for rehabilitation. European Review of Aging and Physical Activity, 9(2), 117. doi: OI: 10.1007/s11556-012-0102-8
Siddiqi, M. F., & Sumarliyah, E. (2014). Tudy kasus tentang aktivitas fisik senam kaki diabetik dalam mengontrol kadar gula darah pada “ny. Dengan diabetes melitus. The Sun, 1, 3.
Sosnoff, J. J., Finlayson, M., McAuley, E., Morrison, S., & Motl, R. W. (2014). Home-based exercise program and fall-risk reduction in older adults with multiple sclerosis: phase 1 randomized controlled trial. Clinical rehabilitation, 28(3), 254-263.
Trombetti, A., Reid, K. F., Hars, M., Herrmann, F. R., Pasha, E., Phillips, E. M., & Fielding, R. A. (2016). Age-associated declines in muscle mass, strength, power, and physical performance: impact on fear of falling and quality of life. Osteoporosis international, 27(2), 463-471. doi: 10.1007/s00198-015-3236-5
Tomlinson, D. J., Erskine, R. M., Morse, C. I., Winwood, K., & Onambélé-Pearson, G. (2016). The impact of obesity on skeletal muscle strength and structure through adolescence to old age. Biogerontology, 17(3), 467-483. doi:10.1007/s10522-0159626-4
Turkeli, S., Elmas, F., Atay, H. T., Kurt, K. K., & Sonmez, R. Y. (2017). A hybrid algorithm for fall detection. Studies in health technology and informatics, 237, 163-168, doi: 10.3233/978-1-61499-761-0-163
Vechin, F. C., Libardi, C. A., Conceição, M. S., Damas, F. R., Lixandrão, M. E., Berton, R. P., ... & Ugrinowitsch, C. (2015). Comparisons between low-intensity resistance training with blood flow restriction and high-intensity resistance training on quadriceps muscle mass and strength in elderly. The Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research, 29(4), doi: 10.1519/JSC.0000000000000703
Victoria. (2018). Physical activity for senior. Better Health Channel. Retrieved from: https://www.betterhealth.vic.gov.au/health/HealthyLiving/physical-activity-forseniors
WHO. (2012). Health education: Theoretical concepts, effective strategies and core competencies. Eastern Mediteranian: World Health Organization Cataloguing.
WHO. (2018). Body Mass index-bmi. World Health Organization. Retrieved from: http://www.euro.who.int/en/health-topics/disease-prevention/nutrition/a-healthylifestyle/body-mass-index-bmi
WHO. (2018). Falls Prevention in Older Age. World Health Organization. Retrieved from: http://www.who.int/ageing/projects/falls_prevention_older_age/en/
WHO. (2018). Health Education. World Health Organization. Retrieved from: https://www.who.int/topics/health_education/en/
WHO. (2018). Physical activity and older adults: Recommended levels of physical activity for adults aged 65 and above. World Health Organization. Retrieved from: http://www.who.int/dietphysicalactivity/factsheet_olderadults/en/
WHO. (2018). What is moderate-intensity and vigorous-intensity physical activity?. World Health Organization. Retrieved from: https://www.who.int/dietphysicalactivity/p hysical_activity_intensity/en/
WHO. (2019). Health education. World Health Organization. Retrieved from: https://www.who.int/topics/health_education/en/
Copyright (c) 2019 Abstract Proceedings International Scholars Conference
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.
Copyright © 2019 ISC Committee.