Examining EFL Pre-service Teachers’ Use of Classroom Discourse Moves and Factors Affecting Their Choices


  • Zeynep Gülşah Kani Çanakkale Onsekiz Mart University
  • Gökçe Nur Türkmen Çanakkale Onsekiz Mart University



Classroom discourse moves, classroom behaviors, discourse factors, pre-service EFL teachers


There are many factors that affect a teacher's classroom behavior. What these effects depend on, where these effects come from, and how they affect the teacher vary from teacher to teacher. This mixed-method descriptive case study aimed to examine the classroom behaviors of twelve Turkish EFL pre-service teachers at a western state university and to understand their thoughts about what the classroom discourse moves that they use depend on. With this aim, the classroom behaviors of EFL pre-service teachers were examined through observation and interviews in complementary to each other. The frequencies of selected classroom discourse moves, which are “eliciting, extending, facilitating, clarifying, supporting and omitting” were observed, and the most frequently used moves were revealed. The pre-service teachers’ opinions evident in their extracts from interviews pointed out the effect of personal and social factors on their behaviors in the classroom and their views on the classroom discourse moves. As a result of the research study, it was found that the pre-service teachers frequently used the facilitating and clarifying discourse moves, and the factor that most affected them was their prior teachers and university education.

Article Metrics


Download data is not yet available.

Author Biographies

Zeynep Gülşah Kani, Çanakkale Onsekiz Mart University

Corresponding Author: Assist. Prof. Dr. Zeynep Gülşah KANİ, English Language Teaching Program, Department of Foreign Languages Education, Faculty of Education, Çanakkale Onsekiz Mart University, Çanakkale, Turkey, ORCID: 0000-0002-1316-0658. Email: zgulsahkani@gmail.com

Gökçe Nur Türkmen, Çanakkale Onsekiz Mart University

MA Candidate, English Language Teaching Program, Department of Foreign Languages Education, School of Graduate Studies, Çanakkale Onsekiz Mart University, Çanakkale, Turkey, ORCID: 0000-0002-8755-1803. Email: turkmengkc@gmail.com


Alkış-Küçükaydın, M. (2019). Concept teaching in science classrooms: A critical discourse analysis of teachers‟ talk. Journal of Education in Science, Environment and Health (JESEH), 5(2), 209-226. Doi: 10.21891/jeseh.568813.

Altunova, N., and Kalman, M. (2020). Factors affecting classroom teachers’ job performance: A qualitative-dominant analysis with q-sorting. Research in Pedagogy, 10(2), 285-312.

Anderson, L. W. (1991). Increasing teachers’ effectiveness. Paris: UNESCO.

Borden, R. (2022). Building a classroom discourse community in university Spanish courses: What high‐achieving language teachers do? Foreign Language Annals, 55, 586-609.

Braun, V., and Clarke, V. (2006). Using thematic analysis in psychology. Qualitative Research in Psychology, 3(2), 77-101.

Chen, Y. C. (2011). Examining the integration of talk and writing for student knowledge construction through argumentation [Unpublished PhD Thesis, University of Iowa]. University of Iowa: Iowa, IA.

Cheruiyot, B. J. (2018). Teacher factors that influence the choice of teaching methods used by Early Childhood Development Education Teachers in Keiyo South District. Africa International Journal of Multidisciplinary Research (AIJMR), 2(1), 7-17.

Creswell, J. W. (2007). Qualitative inquiry and research design: Choosing among five approaches. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Davis, J. R. (2018). Introduction: The problem of integrating classroom management into the lives of those learning to teach. In Classroom management in teacher education programs, (pp. 1-14). Palgrave Macmillan: Cham.

Dayı, E., Bilgiç, H. C., Kılıç, M. Ö., and Okyar, S. (2020). The effect of feedback provided to preservice teachers working with severe and multiple disabilities on collaborative working skills. Hacettepe University Journal of Education, 35(3), 526-539.

Ege, F., Yüksel, D., and Curle, S. (2022). A corpus-based analysis of discourse strategy use by English-Medium Instruction university lecturers in Turkey. Journal of English for Academic Purposes, 58(1), 101125. Doi: 10.1016/j.jeap.2022.101125.

Gardner, J., Harlen, W., Hawyards, I., and Stobart, G. (2011). Engaging and empowering teachers in innovative assessment practice. In R. Berry and B. Adamson (Eds.), Assessment reform in education: Policy and practice (pp. 105-121). New York, NY: Springer.

Gardner, R. (2013). Conversation analysis in the classroom. In J. Sidnell, and T. Stivers (Eds.), The Handbook of Conversation Analysis (pp. 593-611). Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

Gee, J. P. (2008). Ideology in discourses. London: Routledge.

Groundwater-Smith, S., and Cornu, R. L. (2002). Teaching: Challenges and dilemmas (2nd Ed.). South Melbourne: McPhersons Printing Group.

Gümüşok, F., and Balıkçı, G. (2020). Promoting extended student talk in an EFL classroom. Eurasian Journal of Applied Linguistics, 6(2), 205-228.

Harris, C. J., Phillips, R. S., and Penuel, W. R. (2012). Examining teachers’ instructional moves aimed at developing students’ ideas and questions in learner-centred Science classrooms. Journal of Science Teacher Education, 23(7), 769-788.

Hibbert, P., Coupland, C., and MacIntosh, R. (2010). Reflexivity: Recursion and relationality in organizational research processes. Qualitative Research in Organizations and Management: An International Journal, 5(1), 47-62.

Huth, T. (2011). Conversation analysis and language classroom discourse. Language and Linguistics Compass, 5(5), 297-309. Doi: 10.1111/j.1749-818x.2011.00277.

Lincoln, Y. S., Guba, E. G. (1985). Naturalistic inquiry. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.

Nasibi M. W., and Kioo M. (2005). Instructional methods of teaching across the curriculum. Nairobi: Strong Wall.

Okan, Z., and Zorluel-Özer, H. (2018). Discourse markers in EFL classrooms: A corpus-driven research. Journal of Language and Linguistic Studies, 14(1), 50-66.

Onrubia, J., Roca, B., and Minguela, M. (2022). Assisting teacher collaborative discourse in professional development, Teaching and Techer Education Journal, 113, 1-18. Doi: 10.1016/j.tate.2022.103667.

Praetorius, A. K., Lenske, G., and Helmke, A. (2012). Observer ratings of instructional quality: Do they fulfill what they promise? Learning and Instruction, 22, 387–400. Doi: 10.1016/J.LEARNINSTRUC.2012.03.002.

Sefhedi, S. T. (2019). Promoting critical-analytic thinking through teacher discourse moves and pedagogical principles in rural school [Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Pretoria]. University of Pretoria: Pretoria.

Seidel S. B., Reggi A. L., Schinske J. N., Burrus L. W., Tanner K. D., and Tomanek D. (2015). Beyond the biology: A systematic investigation of non-content instructor talk in an introductory biology course. CBE—Life Sciences Education, 14(4), 1-14. Doi: 10.1187/cbe.15-03-0049.

Senemoğlu, N., and Özçelik, D. A. (1989). Ortaöğretime öğretmen yetiştirmede "Meslek bilgisi" bakımından Fen-Edebiyat ve Eğitim Fakültelerinin etkililiği [The effectiveness of Science, Literature and Education Faculties in terms of "vocational knowledge" in training teachers for secondary education]. Modern Education, 14, 18-37.

Soysal, Y. (2020). Determining the mechanics of classroom discourse in Vygotskian sense: Teacher discursive moves reconsidered. Research in Science Education, 50(4), 1639-1663. Doi: 10.1007/s11165-018-9747-2.

Stevens, E. Y. (2016). Teacher discourses and identities: Understanding your teaching self - steps to success: crossing the bridge between literacy research and practice. In Kristen A. Munger (Eds.), Steps to success: Crossing the bridge between literacy research and practice (pp. 201-210). Geneseo, NYC: Open SUNY Textbooks.

Temizkan, M. (2008). Türkçe öğretmenı̇ adaylarının öğretmenlı̇k mesleğı̇ne yönelı̇k tutumları üzerı̇ne bı̇r araştırma [A study on the attitudes of Turkish teacher candidates towards the teaching profession.]. Turkish Educational Sciences Journal, 6(3), 461- 486.

Tong, A., Sainsbury, P., and Craig, J. (2007). Consolidated criteria for reporting qualitative research (COREQ): a 32-item checklist for interviews and focus groups, International Journal for Quality in Health Care, 19(6), 349–357, Doi: 10.1093/intqhc/mzm042.

Van der Lans, R. M. (2018). On the “association between two things”: The case of student surveys and classroom observations of teaching quality. Educational Assessment, Evaluation and Accountability, 30, 347–366. Doi: 10.1007/s11092-018-9285-5

Veldman, I., Admiraal, W., Mainhard, T., Wubbels, T., and Van Tartwijk, J. (2017). Measuring teachers’ interpersonal self-efficacy: Relationship with realized interpersonal aspirations, classroom management efficacy and age. Social Psychology of Education, 20, 411–426. Doi: 10.1007/s11218-017-9374-1.

Wei, L., Murphy, P. K., and Firetto, C. M. (2018). How can teachers facilitate productive small-group talk?: An integrated taxonomy of teacher discourse moves. The Elementary School Journal, 118(4), 578-609. Doi: 10.1086/697531.

Wu, X., and Yang, H. (2022). Unpacking the Functions of Personal Metadiscourse in Teachers’ Classroom Discourse. Sustainability, 14(20), 1-16. Doi: 10.3390/su142013502.

Wubbels, T., and Brekelmans, M. (2005). Two decades of research on teacher-student relationships in class. International Journal of Educational Research, 43, 6–24. Doi: 10.1016/j.ijer.2006.03.003.

Yang, X., and Yin, S. (2022). Interpersonal projection as EFL teachers' discourse strategy to enhance students' willingness to communicate: A systemic-functional perspective. System, 104, 1-10. Doi: 10.1016/j.system.2021.102687.




How to Cite

Z. G. Kani and G. N. Türkmen, “Examining EFL Pre-service Teachers’ Use of Classroom Discourse Moves and Factors Affecting Their Choices ”, JELPEDLIC, vol. 9, no. 2, pp. 202-218, Jun. 2024.