Learning Styles and Attitude toward Achievement among English Second Language Students


  • Nuning Nur Naenah Universitas Advent Indonesia



ESL, learning Style, Attitude, Achievement, Correlation.


English as a Second Language (ESL) is a mandatory class for international students when they come to study abroad, particularly those who come from unspoken English country. This study aims to identify the correlation between learning styles and attitude of AIIAS ESL and their academic achievement. The respondents of this study were thirty-two AIIAS ESL students. Using Pearson r correlation, this study showed that none correlated with the respondents' achievement among the six types of Reid’s learning style (the highest r-value is ≤ 0, 209 while the lowest is ≥ - 0, 263). In contrast, the attitude and achievement in this study showed a positive correlation. Among the three aspects of attitude, the emotion and achievement are significantly correlated (r value: 0.487; p value: 0.005). Meanwhile, the cognitive and attitude is significantly correlated with the r value: 0,427 (p value: =0.05). The weakest correlation with their attitude is behaviour where the r value is only 0.201 (p value: 0.269). Thus, students should be aware of their own learning styles to learn a new language better. In terms of attitude, students should maintain a positive attitude toward learning English to achieve good grades in their learning process

Article Metrics


Download data is not yet available.


Abidin, M. J. Z., Mohammadi, M. P. & Alzwari, H. (2012). EFL Students’ Attitude Towards Learning Style English Language: The Case of Libyan Secondary School Students. Asian Social Science, 8 (2), 119-134.

Alhmali, R. J. (2007). Student’s Attitude in The Context of the Curriculum in Libyan Education in the Middle and High School (Doctoral Dissertation, Glasgow, University of Glasgow). Retrieved from. http://theses.gla.ac.uk/61/1/Rajab


Al-Zayed, Norma Nawaf Yousef (2017), An Investigation of Learning Style Preference on the Student’s Academic Achievement of English. International Journal of English Linguistic 7 (5), 176-183.

Bot, K. D., Lowie, W. & Verspoor, M. (2007). A Dynamic System Theory Approach to Second Language Acquisition. Bilingualism Language and Cognition, 10 (1), 7-21.

Chermahini, S. A., Ghanbari, A., & Talab, M. H. (2013). Learning Styles and Academic Performance of Students in English as A Second-Language Class in Iran. Bulgarian Journal of Science and Education Policy, 7 (2), 322-333.

Ernest. (1998). Best Learner. London: Newbury Park.

El-Omari, A. H. (2016). Factors Affecting Students’ Achievement in English Language Learning, Journal of Educational and Social Research MCSER Publishing, 6 (2), 9-18. Doi:10.5901/jesr.2016.v6n2p9. Retrieved from http://www.mcser.org/


Eshghinejad, S. (2016). EFL Students’ Attitude Toward Learning English Language: The Case Study of Kashan University Students. Cogent Education, 3:1236434, 1-13. Retrieved from: http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080


Etleen. (2001). Learning Styles Preference. USA: Heinle & Henle. Hedge, T. (2000). Teaching and Learning in the Classroom. New York: Oxford University press.

Fakeye, D. O. (2010). Students’ Personal Variables as Correlates of Academic Achievement in English as a Second Language in Nigeria. Journal of Social Science 22 (3), 205-2011.

Gage, N. L. & Berliner, D. C. (1984). Educational Psychology (3rd edition). Boston: Houghton-Mifflin.

Gardner, R. C. (1985) Social Psychology and Second Language Learning: The Role of Attitude and Motivation. London: Edward Arnold.

Gheitasy, H., Azizifar, A., and Gowhary, H. (2014). EFL Adult Learner’s Attitude Towards Learning Speaking. International Research Journal of Applied and Basic Sciences, 1755-1764.

Gohar, M. J. and Sadeghi, N. (2015). The Impact of Learning Style Preference on Foreign Language Achievement: A case study of Iranian EFL students. Procedia – Social and Behavioral Sciences, 171, 754-764. Retrieved from

İnal, S., Evin, İ., and Saracaloğlu, A. S. (2000.). The Relation Between Students’ Attitude Toward Foreign Language and Foreign Language Achievement. Paper presented approaches to the Study of Language and Literature, First International Conference DokuzEylül University Buca Faculty of Education, İzmir, Turkey. Retrieved from http://dergiler.ankara.edu.tr/dergiler/27/754/9618.pdf

Ishak, N. B. & Awang, M. M. ((2017). The Relationship of Students Learning Styles and Achievement in History Subject. The International Journal of Social Sciences and Humanities Invention, 4(3): 3372-2277. DOI: 10.18535/ijsshi/v4i3.04.

Jigsaw. (2005). Cooperative learning. Sage publication: California.

Johari, A. S. & Ahmad, A. (2016). The Relationship Between Learning Style and Student Achievement in History Subject. IOSR Journal of Humanities and Social Science, 21 (7), 07-14.

Katemba, C. V., Buli, R. (2018), Improving Speaking Skills Using the Gallery Walk

Technique. Human Behaviour Development and Society Volume 17, 2018.


Katemba, C.V. (2022), Vocabulary Enhancement through Multimedia Learning Among Grade 7th EFL Students. MEXTESOL Journal, Vol.46 no.1, 2022.


Kara, A. (2009). The Effect of A ‘Learning Theories’ Unit on Students’ Attitude Toward Learning. Australian Journal of Teacher Education, 34 (3)¸ 100-113.

Karahan, F (2007). Language Attitude of Turkish Students Toward the English Language and Its Use in the Turkish Context. Journal of Arts and Sciences 7. 73-87.

Matsumoto, D. (Ed.). (2009). The Cambridge dictionary of psychology. Cambridge University Press.

Mertler, C. (2005). Action Research: Teacher as Research in the Classroom. USA: SAGE.

Nyamubi, G. J. (2016). Students’ Attitude and English Language Performance in Secondary Schools in Tanzania, International Journal of Learning, Teaching and Educational Research, 15 (2), 117-133.

Pashler, H., McDaniel, M., Rohrer, D., & Bjork, R. (2008). Learning Styles: Concepts and Evidence. Psychological Science in the Public Interest (Wiley-Blackwell), 9(3), 105-119. doi:10.1111/j.1539-6053.2009.01038. Psychology (pp. 517-533). London, England: Sage Publications.http://www.tjprc.org/publishpapers/2-40-1490183586-7.IJELAPR20177.pdf

Rangigisan.V. (2010). Perceptual Learning Style of First Year Students at SMK Klabat Airmadidi. Unpublished skripsi for S-1, Unklab, Airmadidi: Indonesia.

Reid, Joy M. (1995). Learning Styles in ESL/EFL Classroom. USA: Heinle & Heinle.

Santilan, A. G., Garcia E. M., Castro, J. C., Abdala, J. H. Z. & Trejo, J. G. (2012). Cognitive, Affective and Behavioral Components that Explain Attitude Toward Statistic. Journal of Mathematics Research, 4 (5). Retrieved from Researchhttp://www.ccsenet.org/journal/index.php/jmr/article/view/20494/13464

Shams, M. (2008). Students’ Attitudes, Motivation and Anxiety Towards English Language Learning. Journal of Research, 2, 121–144.

Siagian, S. W., & Katemba, C. V. (2016). Comparative Study Between Think Aloud and Visual Imagery in Enhancing Students’ Reading Comprehension. Acuity: Journal of English Language Pedagogy, Literature and Culture, 1(2), 36-51. https://doi.org/10.35974/acuity.v1i2.602

Solomon, M. B. (2004). Teaching Academic Writing to Graduate English As Second Language (ESL) Students the Effects of Instruction on Student Academic Writing at the Adventist International Institute Of Advanced Studies (AIIAS). (Unpublished master’s theses). AIIAS, Cavite, Philippines.

Vahdany, F., Sabouri, N. B., & Ghafarnian, S. (2015). The Relationship Among EFL Teachers, Students’ Attitude & Their Teaching-Learning Achievement in English. Theory and Practice in Language Studies, 5 (12), 2625-2630.

Vaughn, L. M., & Baker, R. C. (2008). Do Different Pairings of Teaching Styles and Learning Styles Make A Difference? Preceptor and Resident Perceptions. Teaching & Learning in Medicine, 20(3), 239-247. doi: 10.1080/10401330802199559.

Wong, W. L. H. (2015). A Study of Language Learning Style and Teaching Style Preferences of Hong Kong Community College Students and Teachers in English for Academic Purposes (EAP) Context (master’s thesis). School of Teacher Education College of Education, Health and Human Development University of Canterbury. Canterbury, New Zealand. Retrieved from https://ir.canterbury.ac.nz/





How to Cite

N. Nur Naenah, “Learning Styles and Attitude toward Achievement among English Second Language Students”, JELPEDLIC, vol. 7, no. 2, pp. 179-194, Apr. 2022.