Age, Gender, and Anxiety as Antecedents of Willingness to Communicate: Turkish EFL Context


  • Ramazan Yetkin Hacettepe University, Turkey
  • Zekiye ÖZER Niğde Ömer Halisdemir University, Turkey


Age; Gender; Willingness to Communicate; Foreign Language Anxiety; EFL Learners


Individual differences in language learning have been under close scrutiny for several decades. However, there is still place to be filled in with new research to understand how and to what extent these differences relate to/effect language learning process. Both foreign language classroom anxiety (FLCA) and second language willingness to communicate (L2 WTC) have been key individual differences research paradigm in educational psychology and applied linguistics. To this end, the current study aims to disclose secondary school EFL learners’ FLCA/ L2 WTC levels and their causal relations/predictions by comparing participants’ age and gender differences. The participants were 131 secondary school students. Statistical results pointed out moderate levels of FLCA and WTC. When age and gender difference were compared, it was observed that both of the variables made significant difference on FLCA and WTC with females surpassing males in the scores. Similarly, regression analysis indicated age and gender as the significant predictors of WTC. Study findings were discussed and implications were withdrawn from the study results.

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How to Cite

R. Yetkin and Z. ÖZER, “Age, Gender, and Anxiety as Antecedents of Willingness to Communicate: Turkish EFL Context ”, JELPEDLIC, vol. 7, no. 2, pp. 195-205, Apr. 2022.