Age, Gender, and Anxiety as Antecedents of Willingness to Communicate: Turkish EFL Context

Authors

  • Ramazan Yetkin Hacettepe University, Turkey
  • Zekiye ÖZER Niğde Ömer Halisdemir University, Turkey

https://doi.org/10.35974/acuity.v7i2.2800

Keywords:

Age; Gender; Willingness to Communicate; Foreign Language Anxiety; EFL Learners

Abstract

Individual differences in language learning have been under close scrutiny for several decades. However, there is still place to be filled in with new research to understand how and to what extent these differences relate to/effect language learning process. Both foreign language classroom anxiety (FLCA) and second language willingness to communicate (L2 WTC) have been key individual differences research paradigm in educational psychology and applied linguistics. To this end, the current study aims to disclose secondary school EFL learners’ FLCA/ L2 WTC levels and their causal relations/predictions by comparing participants’ age and gender differences. The participants were 131 secondary school students. Statistical results pointed out moderate levels of FLCA and WTC. When age and gender difference were compared, it was observed that both of the variables made significant difference on FLCA and WTC with females surpassing males in the scores. Similarly, regression analysis indicated age and gender as the significant predictors of WTC. Study findings were discussed and implications were withdrawn from the study results.

Article Metrics

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

References

Afghari, A., & Sadeghi, E. (2012). The effect of EFL learners' gender and second language proficiency on willingness to communicate. Journal of Foreign Language Teaching and Translation Studies, 1(1), 49-66.

Aida, Y. (1994). Examination of Horwitz, Horwitz, and Cope's construct of foreign language anxiety: The case of students of Japanese. The Modern Language Journal, 78(2), 155-168.

Alavinia, P., & Alikhani, M. A. (2014). Willingness to communicate reappraised in the light of emotional intelligence and gender differences. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 98, 143-152.

Authors. (in preparation). Title removed. Manuscript in preparation.

Aydın, S., Harputlu, L., Güzel, S., Çelik, Ş. S., Uştuk, Ö., & Genç, D. (2016). A Turkish version of foreign language anxiety scale: Reliability and validity. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences 232, 250-256.

Baghaei, P., Dourakhshan, A., & Salavati, O. (2012). The relationship between willingness to communicate and success in learning English as a foreign language. Modern Journal of Applied Linguistics, 4(2), 53-67.

Bashosh, S., Nejad, M. A., Rastegar, M., & Marzban, A. (2013). The relationship between shyness, foreign language classroom anxiety, willingness to communicate, gender, and EFL proficiency. Theory and Practice in Language Studies, 3(11), 2098-2106.

Birjandi, P., & Tabataba’ian, M. S. (2012). The interrelationships among emotional intelligence, foreign language anxiety, and willingness to communicate. Journal of American Science, 8(8), 725-730.

Creswell, J. W. (2013). Research design: Qualitative, quantitative, and mixed methods approaches. Sage publications.

Crossman, A. (2020, February 11). Convenience Samples for Research. Toughtco. https://www.thoughtco.com/convenience-sampling-3026726

De Saint Léger, D., & Storch, N. (2009). Learners perceptions and attitudes: Implications for willingness to communicate in an L2 classroom. System, 37(2), 269-285.

Dörnyei, Z. (2007). Research methods in applied linguistics: Quantitative, qualitative and mixed methodologies. Oxford University Press.

Dörnyei, Z., & Taguchi, T. (2010). Questionnaires in second language research: Construction, administration, and processing (2nd ed.). Routledge.

Dewaele, J. M. (2019). The effect of classroom emotions, attitudes toward English, and teacher behavior on willingness to communicate among English Foreign Language Learners. Journal of Language and Social Psychology, 38(4), 523-535.

Ekin, S. (2018). The effect of vision/imagery capacity of the foreign language learners on their willingness to communicate (Unpublished Master's Thesis). Hacettepe University Institute of Educational Sciences, Ankara.

Hashimoto, Y. (2002). Motivation and willingness to communicate as predictors of reported L2 use: The Japanese ESL context. University of Hawai'I Second Langauge Studies Paper, 20 (2), 29-70.

Hernández, T. A. (2010). The relationship among motivation, interaction, and the development of second language oral proficiency in a study‐abroad context. The Modern Language Journal, 94(4), 600-617.

Horwitz, E. K., Horwitz, M. B., & Cope, J. (1986). Foreign language classroom anxiety. The Modern Language Journal, 70(2), 125‐132.

Liu, M. (2006). Anxiety in Chinese EFL students at different proficiency levels. System, 34(3), 301-316.

Liu, M., & Jackson, J. (2008). An exploration of Chinese EFL learners' unwillingness to communicate and foreign language anxiety. The Modern Language Journal, 92, 71–86. http://10.1111/j.1540-4781.2008.00687

MacIntyre, P. D., & Gardner, R. C. (1991). Methods and results in the study of anxiety and language learning: A review of the literature. Language Learning, 41(1), 85-117.

MacIntyre, P. (1994). Variables underlying willingness to communicate: A causal analysis. Communication Research Reports, 11(2), 135-142.

MacIntyre, P. D. (2007). Willingness to communicate in the second language: Understanding the decision to speak as a volitional process. The Modern Language Journal, 91(4), 564-576.

MacIntyre, P. D., Baker, S. C., Clément, R., & Donovan, L. A. (2002). Sex and age effects on willingness to communicate, anxiety, perceived competence, and L2 motivation among junior high school French immersion students. Language Learning, 52(3), 537-564.

MacIntyre, P. D., & Charos, C. (1996). Personality, attitudes, and affect as predictors of second language communication. Journal of Language and Social Psychology, 15(1), 3-26.

MacIntyre, P. D., Clément, R., Dörnyei, Z., & Noels, K. A. (1998). Conceptualizing willingness to communicate in a L2: A situational model of L2 confidence and affiliation. The Modern Language Journal, 82(4), 545-562.

McCroskey, J. C., & Baer, J. E. (1985, November). Willingness to communicate: The construct and its measurement [Paper presentation]. 71st Annual Meeting of the Speech Communication Association, Denver, CO. https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED265604.pdf

Onwuegbuzie, A. J., Bailey, P., & Daley, C. E. (1999). Factors associated with foreign language anxiety. Applied Psycholinguistics, 20(2), 217-239.

Özer, Z., & Yetkin, R. (2022). Exploring the Link between Foreign Language Anxiety and Attitudes towards English among Turkish High School EFL Learners. FIRE: Forum for International Research in Education, 7(2), 37–47. https://doi.org/10.32865/fire202172272

Öztürk, G., & Gürbüz, N. (2013). The impact of gender on foreign language speaking anxiety and motivation. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 70, 654-665.

Partnership for 21st Century Skills. (2002). Learning for the 21st century: A report and MILE guide for 21st century skills. https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED480035.pdf

Peng, J. (2013). The challenge of measuring willingness to communicate in EFL contexts. The Asia-Pacific Education Researcher, 22(3), 281-290.

Peng, J. E., & Woodrow, L. (2010). Willingness to communicate in English: A model in the Chinese EFL classroom context. Language Learning, 60(4), 834-876.

Rastegar, M., & Karami, M. (2015). On the relationship between foreign language classroom anxiety, willingness to communicate and scholastic success among Iranian EFL learners. Theory and Practice in Language Studies, 5(11), 2387-2394. http://dx.doi.org/10.17507/tpls.0511.25

Saito, K. (2015). The role of age of acquisition in late second language oral proficiency attainment. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 37(4), 713-743.

Uyanık, B. (2018). The relationship between students’ willingness to communicate and motivation: An ESP case at a Tertiary program in Turkey (Unpublished Master's thesis). Gazi University, Ankara.

Wu, K. H. (2010). The relationship between language learners' anxiety and learning strategy in the CLT Classrooms. International Education Studies, 3(1), 174-191.

Yashima, T. (2002). Willingness to communicate in a second language: The Japanese EFL context. The Modern Language Journal, 86(1), 54-66.

Yashima, T. (2009). International posture and the ideal L2 self in the Japanese EFL context. In Z. Dörnyei & E. Ushioda (Eds.), Motivation, language identity and the L2 self (pp. 144–192). Multilingual Matters.

Young, D. J. (1991). Creating a low‐anxiety classroom environment: What does language anxiety research suggest? The Modern Language Journal, 75(4), 426-437.

Zhang, R., & Zhong, J. (2012). The hindrance of doubt: Causes of language anxiety. International Journal of English Linguistics, 2(3), 27-33.

Downloads

Published

2022-04-28

How to Cite

[1]
R. Yetkin and Z. ÖZER, “Age, Gender, and Anxiety as Antecedents of Willingness to Communicate: Turkish EFL Context ”, JELPEDLIC, vol. 7, no. 2, pp. 195-205, Apr. 2022.