Examining Attitudes and Online Distractors in Turkish EMI Context during Emergency Remote Teaching


  • Fırat Keskin Alanya Alaaddin Keykubat University
  • Turgay Han Ordu University, Ordu, Turkey


Attitude, distance education, EFL, emergency remote teaching, EMI, online distractors


This study aimed to examine the attitudes of students enrolled in an English preparatory program of a Turkish state university towards the use of emergency remote teaching as a mode of distance education in the 2019-2020 COVID-19 outbreak and to reveal online distractors students experienced throughout this process. A total of 270 EFL students participated in the study; 93 of these participants were female, and 177 were male. The study employed an explanatory sequential design, in which firstly quantitative data were collected using a scale (α= .871), and then qualitative data were gathered through open-ended questions followed by semi-structured ones. The quantitative data were analyzed through descriptive and inferential statistics using SPSS software while the qualitative data were analyzed through a thematic analysis conducted by the researcher and two other experts (κ = 0.70). The results showed that the students held partially positive attitudes towards the use of emergency remote teaching as a mode of distance education. There were significant differences between the students' overall attitudes and their gender, digital literacy, technological accessibility, and perceived language success. The relationship between the online distractors students experienced during Emergency Remote Teaching and their attitudes was also discussed. The conclusions were made in light of the findings, and implications and suggestions for further research were stated.

Article Metrics


Download data is not yet available.


Abrams, Z. I. (2003). The effect of synchronous and asynchronous CMC on oral performance in German. The Modern Language Journal, 87(3), 157-167. https://doi.org/10.1111/1540-4781.00184

Afip, L. A., Norshazrina, N., & Hassan, A. A. (2020). Undergraduate students’ perceptions of emergency forced remote education in learning English. Kresna Social Science and Humanities Research, 1, 1-6. https://doi.org/10.30874/ksshr.4

Akçayır, G., & Akçayır, M. (2018). The flipped classroom: A review of its advantages and challenges. Computers & Education, 126 , 334-345. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compedu.2018.07.021

Aldosari, H. S. (2014). The entwined effects of attitude, motivation and gender on EFL learning: A correlation study. Studies in Literature and Language, 8(1), 1-5. http://flr-journal.org/index.php/sll/article/view/j.sll.1923156320140801.4183

Alibakhshi, G., & Mohammadi, M. J. (2016). Synchronous and asynchronous multimedia and Iranian EFL learners’ learning of collocations. Applied Research on English Language, 5(2), 237-254. https://www.doi.org/10.22108/ARE.2016.20428

Allo, M. D. (2020). Is the online learning good in the midst of Covid-19 pandemic ? The case of EFL learners. Jurnal Sinestesia, 10(1), 1-10. https://www.sinestesia.pustaka.my.id/journal/article/view/24

Aragon, S. R., Johnson, S. D., & Shaik, B. (2002). The influence of learning style preferences on student success in online versus face-to-face environments. The American Journal of Distance Education, 16(4), 227-243. https://doi.org/10.1207/S15389286AJDE1604_3

Ariyanti, A. (2020). EFL Students’ challenges towards home learning policy during Covid-19 outbreak. IJELTAL (Indonesian Journal of English Language Teaching and Applied Linguistics), 5(1), 167-175. https://www.doi.org/10.21093/ijeltal.v5i1.649

Arkhipova, M.V., Belova, E.E., Gavrikova, Y.A., Lyulyaeva, N.A., Shapiro, E.D. (2018). Blended Learning in Teaching EFL to Different Age Groups. In Popkova, E. (Eds.), The Impact of Information on Modern Humans. HOSMC 2017. Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing, vol 622. Springer, Cham. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-75383-6_49

Aydın, S. (2007). Attitudes of EFL learners towards the internet. Turkish Online Journal of Educational Technology-TOJET, 6(3), 18-26. https://eric.ed.gov/?id=EJ1102595

Ayoub, J. (2019). Effective use of Zoom sessions (a synchronous learning strategy) to foster success and motivation of Lebanese university students in Bekaa: A case study. Journal of Letters, Nature, and Science. https://www.awraqthaqafya.com/601/

Banditvilai, C. (2016). Enhancing students' language skills through blended learning. Electronic Journal of e-Learning,14(3), 220-229. https://academic-publishing.org/index.php/ejel/article/view/1757

Birova, L. (2021). Flipped classroom in teaching English as a foreign language to adult learners. Granada: Universidad de Granada. [doctoral dissertation] http://hdl.handle.net/10481/66759

Bond, M. (2020). Schools and emergency remote education during the Covid-19 pandemic: A living rapid systematic review. Asian Journal of Distance Education, 15(2), 191-247. https://eric.ed.gov/?id=EJ1285336

Bozkurt, A., & Sharma, R. C. (2020). Emergency remote teaching in a time of global crisis due to Coronavirus pandemic. Asian Journal of Distance Education, 15(1). http://www.asianjde.com/ojs/index.php/AsianJDE/issue/view/32

Chahkandi, F. (2021). Online pandemic: Challenges of EFL faculty in the design and implementation of online teaching amid the Covid-19 outbreak. Foreign Language Research Journal, 10(4), 706-721. https://www.doi.org/10.22059/JFLR.2021.313652.774

Chen, L., Chen, T. L., & Chen, N. S. (2015). Students’ perspectives of using cooperative learning in a flipped statistics classroom. Australasian Journal of Educational Technology, 31(6). https://doi.org/10.14742/ajet.1876

Cinkara, E., & Bagceci, B. (2013). Learner's attitudes towards online language learning; and corresponding success rates. Turkish Online Journal of Distance Education, 14(2), 118-130. https://dergipark.org.tr/en/pub/tojde/issue/16896

Dörnyei, Z. (2001). New themes and approaches in second language motivation research. Annual review of applied linguistics, 21(1), 43-59. https://www.doi.org/10.1017/S0267190501000034

Ene, E., & Upton, T. A. (2018). Synchronous and asynchronous teacher electronic feedback and learner uptake in ESL composition. Journal of Second Language Writing, 41, 1-13. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jslw.2018.05.005

Erarslan, A., & Topkaya, E. Z. (2017). EFL students attitudes towards e-learning and effect of an online course on students success in English. The Literacy Trek, 3(2), 80-101. https://dergipark.org.tr/en/pub/literacytrek/issue/32167/350186

Fidalgo, P., Thormann, J., Kulyk, O., & Lencastre, J. A. (2020). Students’ perceptions on distance education: A multinational study. International Journal of Educational Technology in Higher Education, 17, 1-18. https://doi.org/10.1186/s41239-020-00194-2

Gardner, N. C. (1985). Social psychology and second language learning: The role of attitudes and motivation. Arnold.

Genc, Z. S., & Aydin, F. (2017). An analysis of learners’ motivation and attitudes toward learning. English Language Teaching, 10 (4), 35-44. https://www.doi.org/10.5539/elt.v10n4p35

Ghosh, R., Panda, S., & Panda, R. A. (2021). Effect and consequences Covid19 pandemic situation on education system in India. International Journal of Creative Research Thoughts (IJCRT) 9(4). https://ijcrt.org/viewfull.php?&p_id=IJCRT2104220

Gunes, S. (2019). What are the perceptions of the students about asynchronous distance learning and blended learning?. World Journal on Educational Technology: Current Issues, 11(4), 230-237. https://doi.org/10.18844/wjet.v11i4.4274

Hariadi, I. G., & Simanjuntak, D. C. (2020). Exploring the experience of EFL students engaged in asynchronous e-learning. Academic Journal Perspective: Education, Language, and Literature, 8(2), 72-86. https://www.doi.org/10.33603/perspective.v8i2.4194

Hazaea, A. N., & Toujani, M. M. (2021). Emergency remote English language teaching in the Arab league countries: Challenges and remedies. Computer-Assisted Language Learning, 22(1), 207-229. http://callej.org/journal/22-1.html

Hodges, C., Moore, S., Lockee, B., Trust, T., & Bond, A. (2020). The difference between emergency remote teaching and online learning. Educause. https://er.educause.edu/articles/2020/3/the-difference-between-emergency-remote-teaching-and-online-learning

Hrastinski, S. (2019). What do we mean by blended learning?. TechTrends, 63(5), 564-569. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11528-019-00375-5

Hu, Y. (2020). Application of Blended Teaching Mode in College English Teaching for Medical Purpose. In Safaei, E. (Eds.), 2020 International Conference on Educational Science (ICES), 311-317. SPG. https://www.doi.org/10.38007/Proceedings.0000295

Huang, M., Shi, Y., & Yang, X. (2021). Emergency remote teaching of English as a foreign language during Covid19: Perspectives from a university in China. IJERI: International Journal of Educational Research and Innovation, 15, 400-418. https://doi.org/10.46661/ijeri.5351

Hussein, E., Daoud, S., Alrabaiah, H., & Badawi, R. (2020). Exploring undergraduate students’ attitudes towards emergency online learning during Covid-19: A case from the UAE. Children and Youth Services Review, 119. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.childyouth.2020.105699

Karim, M. R., & Hasan, M. (2020). Virtual classes during Covid 19 pandemic in tertiary level in Saudi Arabia: Challenges and prospects from the students’ perspective. Asian EFL Journal, 27(5), 205-2019. https://www.asian-efl-journal.com/monthly-editions-new/2020-monthly-editions/volume-27-issue-5-1-december-2020/index.htm

Kobayashi, Y. (2002). The role of gender in foreign language learning attitudes: Japanese female students' attitudes towards English learning. . Gender and education, 14(2), 181-197. https://doi.org/10.1080/09540250220133021

Lengkanawati, N. S., Wirza, Y., & Alicia, D. (2021). EFL learners’ view on online learning implementation during Covid-19 outbreaks. 4th Sriwijaya University Learning and Education International Conference (SULE-IC 2020), 351-357. Atlantis Press. https://doi.org/10.2991/assehr.k.201230.130

Lestari, I. W. (2021). Flipped classroom in Indonesian higher education: A mixed-method study on students' attitudes and experiences. Studies in English Language and Education, 8(1), 243-257. https://doi.org/10.24815/siele.v8i1.17636

Lipnevich, A. A., Gjicali, K., & Krumm, S. (2016). Understanding attitudes in education. In Khine, M. S. & Areepattamannil, S. (Eds.), Non-cognitive skills and factors in educational attainment 111-127. Springer.

Lotfi, A. R., & Pozveh, S. M. (2019). The effect of synchronous and asynchronous language learning: A study of Iranian EFL intermediate students' vocabularylearning. Theory and Practice in Language Studies, 9(12), 1585-1594. https://www.doi.org/10.17507/tpls.0912.16

Mazlan, A. F., Mohamad, M., Reesha, A., Kassim, R., Othman, Z., & Kummin, S. (2021). Challenges and strategies to enhance online remote teaching and learning by tertiary institution educators: A literature review. Creative Education, 12(4), 718-726. https://www.doi.org/10.4236/ce.2021.124050

Mehr, H. S., Zoghi, M., & Assadi, N. (2013). Effects of synchronous computer-mediated communication and face-to-face interaction on speaking skill development of Iranian EFL learners. International Journal of Applied Linguistics and English Literature, 2(5), 36-41. https://doi.org/10.7575/aiac.ijalel.v.2n.5p.36

Mohammadi, M. O., Jabbari, A. A., & Fazilatfar, A. (2018). The impact of the asynchronous online discussion forum on the Iranian EFL students’ writing ability and attitudes. Applied Research on English Language, 7(4), 457-486. https://www.doi.org/10.22108/ARE.2018.112792.1351

Mori, S., & Gobel, P. (2006). Motivation and gender in the Japanese EFL classroom. System, 34(2), 194-210. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.system.2005.11.002

Nowell, L. S., Norris, J. M., White, D. E., & Moules, N. J. (2017). Thematic analysis: Striving to meet the trustworthiness criteria. International journal of qualitative methods, 16(1). https://doi.org/10.1177/1609406917733847

Nugroho, A., Haghegh, M., & Triana, Y. (2021). Emergency remote teaching amidst global pandemic: Voices of Indonesian EFL teachers. VELES Voices of English Language Education Society, 5(1), 66-80. https://doi.org/10.29408/veles%20journal.v5i1.3258

Perveen, A. (2016). Synchronous and asynchronous e-language learning: A case study of virtual university of Pakistan. Open Praxis, 8(1), 21-39. https://www.learntechlib.org/p/171556/

Pokhrel, S., & Chhetri, R. (2021). A literature review on impact of Covid-19 pandemic on teaching and learning. Higher Education for the Future, 8(1), 133-141. https://doi.org/10.1177/2347631120983481

Pop, A., Tomuletiu, E. A., & David, D. (2011). EFL speaking communication with asynchronous voice tools for adult students. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 15, 1199-1203. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2011.03.262

Price, G. (2021). Improving the quality of emergency remote teaching. CELE Journal, 29, 129-143. https://cir.nii.ac.jp/crid/1070006065614552064

Rasheed, R. A., Kamsin, A., & Abdullah, N. A. (2020). Challenges in the online component of blended learning: A systematic review. Computers & Education, 144. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compedu.2019.103701

Resnik, P., & Dewaele, J. M. (2021). Learner emotions, autonomy and trait emotional intelligence in ‘in-person’versus emergency remote English foreign language teaching in Europe. Applied Linguistics Review. https://doi.org/10.1515/applirev-2020-0096

Riwayatiningsih, R., & Sulistyani, S. (2020). The implementation of synchronous and asynchronous e-language learning in EFL setting: a case study. Jurnal Basis, 7(2), 309-318. https://doi.org/10.33884/basisupb.v7i2.2484

Ryabkova, G. V. (2020). The use of blended learning in EFL (writing skills): A case for Rosetta Stone software. ARPHA Proceedings, 3. https://www.doi.org/10.3897/ap.2.e2113

Shaikh, G., Koçak, O., & Göksu, I. (2021). Does" DynEd" affect students' attitudes and language skills in EFL? A case study. Teaching English with Technology, 21(1), 75-93. https://www.ceeol.com/search/article-detail?id=924223

Shang, H. F. (2017). An exploration of asynchronous and synchronous feedback modes in EFL writing. Journal of Computing in Higher Education, 29(3), 496-513. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12528-017-9154-0

Singh , V., & Thurman , A. (2019). How many ways can we define online learning? A systematic literature review of definitions of online learning (1988-2018). American Journal of Distance Education, 33 (4), 289-306. https://doi.org/10.1080/08923647.2019.1663082

Tahriri, A., Hassaskhah, J., & Pour, A. M. (2015). The impact of synchronous computer-mediated communication on EFL learners’ motivation. International Journal of Research Studies in Educational Technology, 4(2). https://www.learntechlib.org/p/150687/

Tatarinceva, A. (2009). Influence of the gender factor on a student’s learning style and achievements in language learning. Transport and Telecommunication Institute. 64-71. https://tsi.lv/sites/default/files/editor/science/Publikacii/Education/2009/12_tatarinceva.pdf

Viriya, C., & Sapsirin, S. (2014). Gender differences in language learning style and language learning strategies. Indonesian Journal of Applied Linguistics, 3(2), 77-88. https://doi.org/10.17509/ijal.v3i2

Wali, H. A., & Rassul, T. H. (2021). The EFL learners' attitudes towards using Moodle as an LMS for learning English language. Journal of Language Studies, 4(1), 70-84. http://jls.tu.edu.iq/index.php/lang/issue/view/13

White, C. (2006). Distance learning of foreign languages. Language Teaching, 39(4), 247-264. https://www.doi.org/10.1017/S0261444806003727

Wright, B. (2017). Blended learning: Student perception of face-to-face and online EFL lessons. Indonesian journal of applied linguistics, 7(1), 64-71. https://doi.org/10.17509/ijal.v7i1

Xodabande, I. (2018). Iranian EFL learners’ preferences of different digital technologies for language learning beyond the classroom. International Journal of Education and Literacy Studies, 6(3), 20-31. https://doi.org/10.7575/aiac.ijels.v.6n.3p.20

Yazawa, O. (2021). Comparison of Japanese university students’ levels of self-determined motivation in face-to-face and ERT classrooms: NESTs and JTEs effect on satisfaction of students’ basic psychological needs. Computer Assisted Language Learning Electronic Journal, 22(2), 91-103. http://callej.org/archives.html




How to Cite

F. Keskin and T. . Han, “Examining Attitudes and Online Distractors in Turkish EMI Context during Emergency Remote Teaching ”, JELPEDLIC, vol. 8, no. 1, pp. 101-118, Dec. 2022.