Comparative Study Between Think Aloud and Visual Imagery in Enhancing Students’ Reading Comprehension
The purpose of this study is to find out whether Think Aloud and Visual Imagery have significant difference in enhancing students’ reading comprehension. This study used comparative design, test the comprehension of the students through pre-test, treatment, and post-test. This research was done to 32 students of class 8F in Visual Imagery group; they were given passage to read and draw the image created in her mind on the paper; and 29 students of class 8E in Think Aloud group; the teacher and students think aloud the answers to the questions that were found in the text. The study was done in SMPN 1 Parongpong, West Bandung for 5 weeks or 640 minutes. Result of the study showed the average gain for Visual Imagery group is 0.038 and Think Aloud group is 0.125. The p-value = 0.686 > Î± (0.05), which means H0 is not rejected. Thus, there is no significant difference on students’ reading comprehension between those who are taught using Think-Aloud and those who are taught using Visual Imagery.
Keyword: Reading comprehension, Think Aloud, Visual Imagery
Allen, L. Jennifer. 2008. The Impact of Speech-language Pathologist Service Delivery Models for Concept Imagery Formation Instruction on Second Grade Students' Language Achievement Outcomes. University of Nebraska at Omaha. Department of Educational Administration and Supervision. Published by: ProQuest. ISBN: 0549884653, 9780549884651.
Anne Nielsen Hibbing & Joan L Rankin-Ericson. 2003. A picture is worth a thousand words: Using visual images to improve comprehension for middle school struggling readers. The Reading Teacher, Vol. 56, No. 8 (May, 2003), pp. 758-770Published by: International Reading Association Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/20205292
Ashton, A. Aleksandra. 2012. Mental Imagery and Reading Comprehension Proficiency in English Second Language Learners: An Exploratory Study. University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg.
Braunger, J., & Lewis, J.P. (2006). Building a Knowledge Base in Reading (Second Edition). USA: IRA & NCTE 124-129, 140-146.
Bromley, K. (2007). Nine things every teacher should know about words and vocabulary instruction. Journal of Adolescent & Adult Literacy, 50, 528- 536.
Burns, Paul C., Sandy H. Smith, and Betty D. Roe. 2012. Teaching Reading in Today's
Elementary Schools. 11th ed. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Cengage Learning, 2012. 8. Print.
Burt, M., J. K. Peyton & C. Van Duzer. 2005. How should adult ESL reading instruction differ from ABE reading instruction? [Retrieved April 4, 2016] CAELA Network Brief, March. Available at http://www.cal.org/caela/esl_resources/briefs/Readingdif.pdf
Cain, K., Oakhill, J. V., Barnes, M. A., & Bryant, P. E. (2001). Comprehension skill, inference making ability, and the relation to knowledge. Memory and Cognition, 29, 850â€“ 859. doi: 10.3758/BF03196414
Cain, K., Oakhill, J., & Bryant, P. E. (2004). Children's reading comprehension ability: Concurrent prediction by working memory, verbal ability, and component skills. Journal of Educational Psychology, 96, 31-42. doi:10.1037/0022- 06184.108.40.206
Cahyono, Bambang Yudi., Widiati Utami. â€œTHE TEACHING OF EFL READING IN THE INDONESIAN CONTEXT: THE STATE OF THE ARTâ€ (2006). Universitas Negeri Malang.
Duke, Nell K. & P. David Pearson. (2002). Effective strategies for developing reading comprehension (pp.205-215).
Erten, Ä°smail HakkÄ± & RazÄ±, Salim. (2009). The effects of cultural familiarity on reading comprehension. Ã‡anakkale Onsekiz Mart University Turkey. Reading in a Foreign Language. April 2009, Volume 21, No. 1 ISSN 1539-0578 pp. 60â€“77.
Farr, Roger and Jenny Conner. 2004. â€œUsing Think-Alouds to Improve Reading Comprehension.â€ Accessed December 2, 2015. http://www.readingrockets.org/article/102/
Ismail, Ade (2011) AN INVESTIGATION OF STUDENTS' STRATEGIES IN COMPREHENDING ENGLISH READING MATERIALS: A case study at one Senior High School in Ternate. S2 thesis, Universitas Pendidikan Indonesia.
J. A. Bright, G. P. McGregor. Teaching English as a Second Language. Great
Britain: Lowe & Brydone (Printers) Ltd., Thetford, Norfolk. 1973. Jafarigohar, Manoochehr., et al. â€œThe Effects of Reciprocal Teaching vs. Think-
Aloud on Reading Comprehension of Pre-Intermediate Students in Iranâ€
Jahandar, Shahrokh., et al. â€œThe Think Aloud Method in EFL Reading
Majors, M. Sandra. (2001). REPORTED USE OF IMAGERY STRATEGY IN READING COMPREHENSION INSTRUCTION. Oklahoma State University Stillwater, Oklahoma.
Marzano, R. (2004). Building Background Knowledge for Academic Achievement.
Alexandria, VA: ASCD
Masduqi, Harits. â€œEfl Reading in Indonesian Universities: Perspectives and Challenges in Cultural Contextsâ€ (2014).
Mcdonald, Shannon. â€œExperiences and Pictures: Using Visual Imagery and Background Knowledge to Improve Reading Comprehensionâ€ (2001).
McKeown, Regina & Gentilucci, James. Think-Aloud Strategy: Metacognitive development and monitoring comprehension in the middle school secondlanguage
classroomâ€. Journal of Adolescent & Adult Literacy, October 2007, Volume 51, Number 2, pp.136-147.
Milenovic, M. Zivorad. (2011). APPLICATION OF MANN-WHITNEY U TEST IN RESEARCH OF PROFESSIONAL TRAINING OF PRIMARY SCHOOL TEACHERS. Metodicki obzori 6 (2011)1. Original scientific article. UDK: 159.9.072:371.13. Received: 18. 8. 2010.
Mockel, L. Joan, "Thinking Aloud in the Science Classroom: Can a literacy strategy increase student learning in science?" (2013). Dissertations and Theses. Paper 1420.
Moreillon, (2007). Collaborative Strategies for Teaching Reading Comprehension:
Maximize Your Impact. American library Association, Chicago. Nuttall, Christine. (2005). Teaching Reading Skills in a Foreign Language. Oxford, UK: Macmillan Education.
Pearson, P. David, et al. The effect of background knowledge on Young children comprehension of explicit and implicit information. Urbana: University of Illinois, Center for the study reading, 1979.
S. Ratna, Anne. (2014). The Use of Cognitive Reading Strategies to Enhance EFL
Students' Reading Comprehension. International Journal of Education (IJE), Vol. 2, No. 1.
"Think-Aloud Protocol." Evaluation Toolbox for Aviation Technical Writers. National Institute for Aviation Research, 11 May 2004. Web. 9 May 2016.
Rankin, J. M. (1988). Designing thinking-aloud studies in ESL reading. Reading in a Foreign Language, 4.
Riswanto, et al. (2014). The Effect of Using KWL (Know, Want, Learned) Strategy on EFL Studentsâ€™ Reading Comprehension Achievement. International Journal of Humanities and Social Science Vol. 4, No. 7(1).
Rizqiya, S. Rissa. â€œThe Use of Mind Mapping In Teaching Reading Comprehensionâ€ (2012).
Sanford, Karen L., "Factors that Affect the Reading Comprehension of Secondary Students with Disabilities" (2015). Doctoral Dissertations. Paper 125.
Sukyadi, Didi., & Hasanah, E. U.. â€œScaffolding Studentsâ€™ Reading Comprehension with Think-Aloud Strategyâ€. (2009).
Sunggingwati, Dyah & Hoa Thi Mai Nguyen. â€œTeachersâ€™ Questioning in Reading Lessons: A Case Study in Indonesiaâ€ (2013).
Syatriana, Erny. â€œDeveloping the Students Reading Comprehension through Cognitive Reading Strategies of the First Year Students of SMAN 16 Makasarâ€ (2012).
Shapiro, S. S. and Wilk, M. B. (1965). "An analysis of variance test for normality
(complete samples)", Biometrika, 52, 3 and 4, pages 591-611. Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/2333709
Someren, Maarten W. Van, Yvonne F. Barnard & Jacobijn A.C. Sandberg. (1994). The think aloud method: A practical guide to modeling cognitive processes. London: Academic Press.
Uyanto, Stanislaus S. 2009. Pedoman Analisis Data dengan SPSS. Graha Ilmu. Yogyakarta. Sugiono. 2008. Metode Penelitian Bisnis. AlfaBeta. Bandung.
Van Meter, P., Aleksic, M., Schwartz, A., & Garner, J. (2006). Learner-generated drawing as a strategy for learning from content area text. Contemporary Educational Psychology.
Wiener, Harvey S., and Charles Bazerman. Reading Skills Handbook. 9th ed. New
York: Pearson Education, 2006.
Wilhelm, Jeffrey D. (2006). Improving comprehension with think-aloud strategies: A study guide for. Scholastic Publications. Think Aloud Strategy.